Contributed by Cathy_Labath
Date: June 27 1849
Wednesday, June 27, 1849
The "ninth general report of the Colonial Land and Emigration Commissioners," which has just issued, is a most important document. It appears that emigration during the year 1848 amounted to 248,089 persons, of whom 219,298 proceeded to North America-that is, 188,233 to the United States and only 31,065 to the British American colonies! In the preceeding year, 1847, 142,144 emigrated to the States, and 109,680 to the British colonies. Although "it is impossible to obtain very accurate information, it has been ascertained that the amount paid in the United States for passages, or remitted through houses at Liverpool and in Ireland for intending emigrants (not including the house of Baring, Brothers, at Liverpool) was during the year 1948, upwards of £460,000."
From Canada, it appears, that of the 27, 939 persons who landed there in 1848, no fewer than 7,411-about 25 per cent-at once proceeded to the United States. It is reported that "the emigration of 1848," Mr. Buchanan says, "so far as health and condition are concerned, bears a most favourable comparison with that of 1847. The death on the passage, which were 273, amount to little more than one per cent, on the whole number embarked."
The Irish Female Orphans have been well received in South Australia. The Commissioners report "this emigration being of a novel character, has occupied our most earnest attention, and some of these young people, previous to embarcation, have been examined by a member of the Board. We have been much gratified by the intelligence recently received from the colony, that although in the first instance a prejudice was conceived against them, this feeling has given way before the good conduct of those who were first engaged, that all the remainder have been immediately taken off and that the colony would willingly receive more of the same description." The Governor's report contains an application that 300 or 400 more young females should be sent out within the year. "It is impossible to over-rate the boon which this emigration confers upon a class entitled to public sympathy, but not enjoying in this country any prospects of a fair opening to secure an honest and independent livelihood. How many might be saved from the "living death" they are driven to by poverty and misery.
The Colonial Government in New South Wales have complained to Earl Grey that, in a ship despatched last winter with female orphan girls from the Irish poor law houses, 52 street prostitutes were sent out from Belfast! An inquiry is ordered to take place into the matter.
QUEBEC, JUNE 2- Return of the number of emigrants arrived from the opening of the navigation to this date:-
From England................72 1199
Germany............... 0 67
To corresponding period 1848 ...226 6217
Of the emigrants by 18 Vessels arrived during the past week having 1923 passengers on board, but 5 deaths occurred on the passage, and eight were found sick on arrival at Grosse Isle.
Emigration Department, Quebec
26th May, 1849
TREATMENT OF CHOLERA
We find that in April and June of 1832, and in 1833, Dr. Stephens' saline treatment was tried in Coldbath-fields Prison, where there were at that period no less than 216 well-marked cases of Asiatic Cholera. Of these 514 were treated according to the mode introduced by Dr. Stephens, the deaths were only 31, or about 6 per cent. In the first 100 cases treated by Dr. Stephens, the deaths were only 5, leaving 97 per cent of recoveries. It is also well worthy of remark, that of these first 100 cases, 25 of the patients were in the pulseless collapse-stage of the disease before they came under treatment.
The reader, unacquainted with the bitterness of spirit which actuates the doings of some men, and with the undying envy and consequent hatred of others, will scarcely believe, although it is evinced in the records of the Coldbath-fields Prison beyond all dispute, that by Dr. Stephen's treatment the mortality in upwards of 500 cases was only 6 per cent, this method has not been publicly recommended and generally adopted.- And well may he exclaim, "Can such things be!" if he further compares the above result with that given in the Times of February 13th, by which it appears that in a few places in Scotland, from October 1848 to February 11th, 1849, where the Board of Health's treatment was chiefly applied, in 9826 cases the deaths were 4285, or within a shade of 50 per cent; and the recoveries there certified were only 3074, or about 30 per cent, the remaining 20 per cent of the patients being still under treatment or unaccounted for.
We have only to add, we have obtained a verified copy of the records at Coldbath-fields prison, relative to the Cholera of 1832 and 1833; and that a strict examination of this document has completely removed from our minds every shadow of doubt with respect to the truth of the statement originally made by Dr. Stephens, and more recently by Dr. Turley, namely, that the saline treatment as recommended by Dr. Stephens is actually the most successful of any that had been suggested."--Medical Times.
OUR SANATORY STATE- The Sanitary state of the town continues to be progressively interesting, as every effort is being made by both the mayor and the committee to have not only every street, but every cottage perfectly clean. Under providence these exertions have been productive of results, as we have not only had no Cholera here, but very few cases of contagious diseases either in private houses or public medical institutions. Our recent apprehensions of Cholera have considerably abated, and we hope by the blessing of God to continue an exception to so many other neighbouring towns which it has so fearfully visited.--Sligo Guardian.
Sub constable Thomas Hanna, of Ballinacurra, is dismissed the forces for insubordination.
Sir M. Barrington, Bart., Son & Jeffers, have given £50 to the Central Relief Committee.
Old Jamaica and Barbadoes rum is selling in Cork at 6s. the gallon.
Mr. Fox, M.P. for Longford and Mr. Roebuck, M.P. for Sheffield have explained and retracted, upon the intimation of an affair of honour from the former gentleman. Mr. Roebuck "the brindled cat" has withdrawn the term "falsehood" which he applied to Mr. Fox, and Mr. F the words "hired advocate of rebels" that he addressed to Mr. Roebuck.
Private John Norris, 85th, shot himself in the barrack room at Waterford on Monday.
Lieut. Charles F Higgins, of the Mayo Militia, was re-committed, on Tuesday, at Middlesex sessions in default of bail for outrageous conduct to his wife.
The bill for the detection of sheep stealers in Ireland (known as Mr. Burke's Bill) passed through committee in the House of Lords on Thursday, it having also passed through the House of Commons. There is a certainty now of this useful measure speedily becoming law.
The number of destitute persons on the out door relief lists in the Kilrush union exceed £30,000.
On Friday Thomas Power, runner of the Carrick-on-Suir National Bank, absconded with a considerable sum of money.
His Excellency, the Lord Lieutenant has been pleased to appoint the Rev. Joseph Aldrich Bermingham, M.A., Rector of Kellistown, in the diocese of Leighlin, and one of his Excellency's Chaplains, to the Deanery of the Catholic Church of Kilmacduagh, vacant by the promotion of the Very Rev. A.L. Kirwan, to the Deanery of Limerick.
Her Majesty's letters patent have passed the seal appointing the Rev. William Higgins Bishop of Limerick, Ardfert and Aghadoe.
The Rev. William Walker, Curate of Carrigaline, succeeds to the Incumbency of Fermoy, vacant by the promotion of the Rev. James White to the living of Inchigeela, diocese of Cork.
Miss Maria Wilson, the daughter of a factory owner at Manchester, last week obtained £800 damages against Mr. John Douglas, of Armagh, for breach of promise of marriage, he having married Miss Bellhouse, also of Manchester, after he had been betrothed to Miss Wilson.
War Office, June 22
4th Light Dragoons-Troop Sergeant Major John Hill to be Quartermaster, vice Tarleton, deceased.
Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards-Lieut. Col. Thomas Crombie, from half-pay Unattached to be Captain and lieut. Col. vice Charles Ash Windham who exchanges, Capt. the Hon. Arthur Edward Hardinge, from the 16th Foot, to be Lieut.and Capt. Vice Duncomb, who exchanges.
16th Regiment of Foot-Lieut and Capt. George Thomas Duncomb from the Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards to be Captain, vice Hardinge, who exchanges.
17th- Ensign William Pollard to be Lieutenant, by purchase, vice Moore, who retires; Charles Petras Geneste, Gent., to be Ensign by purchase, vice Pollard.
45th-Ensign Frederick Robert Grantham to be Lieutenant by purchase, vice Kippen, who retires; Ensign George Laimont Hobbs to be Lieutenant, by purchase, vice Sir Robert A.F.G. Calleton, Bart., who retires; Henry Lucas, Gent.to be Ensign by purchase, vice Grantham, John James Lloyd Williams, Gent. to be Ensign by purchase, vice Hobbs.
73d- Lieut. Charles Hoghton, to be Captain, without purchase, vice Hisse, deceased.
82-Captain Henry Christopher Marriott, from the Royal Newfoundland Companies, to be Captain, vice West, who exchanges; Colour-Sergeant Samuel Spence from the 14th Foot to be Quartermaster, vice Robert Harre, dismissed the service by the sentence of a General Court Martial.
90th-Ensign Vere Henry Close to be Lieutenant by purchase, vice the Hon. William Harbord, who retires; Ensign Walter Blakeney Persse, from the 99th Foot to be Ensign, vice Close.
99th- Henry Frederick Winchelsea Ely, Gent., to be Ensign, by purchase, vice Persse, appointed to the 90th Foot.
Ceylon Rifle Regiment-Second Lieutenant john Inman, to be First Lieutenant, without purchase, vice Dwyer, deceased.
Royal Newfoundland Companies-Captain Osborn West from the 82nd Foot, to Captain, vice Marriott, who exchanges.
Royal Malta Fencible Regiment-Assistant Surgeon Ludovico Bernard, M.D., to be Surgeon, vice Montarfaro, deceased.
Brevet-Major General William Rowan, C.B., to have the local rank of Lieutenant-General in the army in Canada.
Memorandum-The Christian names of Ensign Carrington, 26th Foot, are Frederick Alfred, not Frederick, as previously stated.
The Cork and Bandon railway will be opened to Ballinhassig, half-way to Bandon, on the 1st August.
Colonel Maberly is at present in Dublin on business connected with the post office altercations.
Mr. Josias Broker, of Liverpool, has purchased, at Demerara, the Profit plantation for 10,220 dollars.
Mr. Wombell, jun, was crushed to death by an elephant in the menagerie, at Coventry, on Sunday.
The cholera hospital, at Cork, was finally closed on Friday, and the medical staff discharged.
Dr. Langley, of Nenagh, was taken on Saturday by the police in the neighbourhood of Dublin.
The Duke of Bedford pays the rate in aid for the tenantry on his Irish estates.
There are 780 prisoners in Tralee gaol, including 77 transport convicts.
The scythe is in general operation in the meadows about Limerick, and the yield is very productive.
Tobacco is the most productive article of Customs revenue in the port of Limerick.
The Ecclesiastical Board have commenced painting thirteen churches in the county Galway.
Private Wall, 59th regiment, mutilated himself by a gunshot wound at Cork gaol while on duty there.
On Tuesday at Kilmacshane, near Clonfert, a respectable farmer, named Pardy, was gored to death in a shocking manner by his own bull.
A son of Mr. and Mrs. M.L. Apjohn, of Altabeg, was severely wounded in the arm and shoulder last week by the accidental explosion of a pistol.
Major M'Kie, Poor Law Inspector, died last week in Galway, and was interred with military honours by the 68th Light Infantry.
The Poor Law Commissioners are in the receipt of £40,000 monthly from the Treasury, for the relief of distressed unions in Ireland.
A sealed order from the Poor Law Commissioners requires Cork union to pay £8,000 under the rate in aid act.
The barque, Australasia, Captain J. Connel, has arrived at Kingstown from London, to embark 200 female convicts and 40 children for New South Wales.
Professor Alridge is about to deliver a course of lectures on practical chemistry at Mountmellick, having been deputed by the Royal Dublin Society.
There are in Kilrush workhouse and auxiliary workhouse over 2,200 paupers, 250 of whom are in the fever hospital and infirmary. Over 28,000 are on the outdoor relief list in the union.
Messrs. Gurney and Foster, as a deputation from the Society of Friends, waited upon Prince Albert at Buckingham Palace, on Thursday, with a petition to the Queen, for the suppression of the slave trade.
Captain George Grange is held to bail at Marlboro'-street office, for writing a letter to provoke a duel to P.H. Leicester, Esq., son of a clergyman, by whom the captain complained he lost £900.
William Thompson, indicted at the Dublin Commission for the forgery of a bill of exchange for £50 on Sir Henry Meredyth, pleaded guilty and was sentenced to nine months' imprisonment, with hard labour.
On Sunday morning the Dublin and Wicklow mountains were white and crisp with hoar frost. The same indication of temperature was observable in the contiguous counties of Carlow and Kildare.
The army in Ireland this month consists of 2 troops of Royal Horse Artillery, and 12 companies of Royal Artillery, 10 regiments of cavalry, 24 regiments of infantry and 9 depots.
The wife of the leading statesman of the Peel party, one who was a member of Sir Robert's cabinet, has just become a convert to the Roman Catholic faith. She is the daughter of a Scottish nobleman, and the conversion is from Presbyterian.
NETTLES- It is a singular fact that steel dipped in the juice of the nettle becomes flexible, and lint dipped in nettle juice and put up to the nostril, has been known to stay the bleeding of the nose when all other remedies have failed.
DEATH FROM SUFFOCATION- A respectable farmer named Lackey Healy, aged about 60 years, was choked by a piece of beef, while dining on Wednesday last, in Found-street. Dr. Lougheed, of this town, was called in immediately, but life was extinct before aid could be afforded. The portion of meat was unusually large.---Sligo Guardian
WELSH SURNAMES- In Sweden, hereditary surnames are said to have been unknown before the commencement of the fourteenth century. At a much later period no surnames were used in Wales, beyond ap. or son, as David-ap-Howell, Even-ap-Rhys, Griffith-ap-Roger, John-ap-Richard, now very naturally corrupted into Powell, Price, Prodyer and Pritchard. To a like origin may be referred a considerable number of the surnames beginning with P and B now in use in England; amongst which may be mentioned Preece, Price, Pumphrey, Parry, Probert, Probyn, Pugh, Penry; Bevan, Bithal, Barry, Benyon and Bowers. It was not unusual, a century or two back, to hear of such combinations as Evan-ap-Griffith-ap-David-ap-Jenkin and so on to the seventh or eighth generation, so that an individual often carried his pedigree in his name.- The church of Langollen, in Wales, is said to be dedicated to St. Collen-ap-Gwynnawg-ap-Clandawaw-ap-Cowrda
-ap-Cardoe-Friechfras-ap-Llyn- Merim-ap-Elnion-Yerth-ap-Cunedda-Wiedig, a name that casts that of the Dutchman Inkervankodsdosapanchinkadrachdern nomenclature, some wag described cheese as being.
Adam's own cousin-german by its birth
SERIOUS OUTRAGE- An outrage of rather a serious nature was committed on the night of the 9th instant at about eleven o'clock. Three out-offices, the property of Sir Malby Crofton, R.M., Longford House, Bart., were set on fire by some evil disposed persons, which were totally consumed. No doubt can exist but that the work was that of an incendiary; as, when the roof fell in, a lighted coal was found under the eaves. We are at a loss what cause to assign this malicious outrage to as Sir Malby is universally beloved in the neighbourhood, and has only a short time since come into possession of his property and title on the death of his father, Sir James Crofton.--Sligo Guardian.
UNEQUALLY YOKED-A marriage took place in the county Cavan, on Monday last, when a Miss Gibson pledged her troth and her obedience to a Master Bennett. The bride who is in her 74th year, has been thrice wedded, but vows that she never met any till now for whom she cared. The bridegroom is yet in his 'teens.--Armagh Guardian.
A poor man named Patrick Roche was drowned on Friday in that part of the Shannon called the Ferry, beyond Kilrush. He swam from the shore after a conoe, which was drifting out to sea, but having ventured too far, he became exhausted, and sunk before assistance could reach him.
A serious disclosure has taken place at the Dungarvan workhouse. It appears that 700 rations are returned daily for persons not in the house, some of whom are known to be dead for four years! Several other frauds have been discovered since. It is supposed that the union has altogether sustained a loss of £11,000
A verdict of wilful murder has been returned against Thomas Power, a gate-keeper at Carrick-on-Suir workhouse, for ill-treatment to a pauper inmate which resulted in his death.
THE WORKING OF THE IRISH POOR LAW.
To the Editor of the Times.
SIR- Since I last addressed you I have visited the unions of Tuam, Ballinrobe, Castlebar and Ballina.- A reference of the map of Ireland will show you the extent of ground I have passed over. In returning here I only travelled about 35 miles of ground, purposely having chosen my route so as to see the most I could of the country and the people. I made it a rule to go into every department of every unionhouse. I believe, with the exception of a few auxiliary houses, I have been in almost every ward and dormitory tenanted by these unions. In every instance of inspection since I last wrote, I have been accompanied by the resident poor law inspector; and I cannot express myself too strongly on the kind way in which these gentlemen and the vice-guardians extended to me every facility which could aid me in my object, I was allowed and encouraged to ask any questions I chose-to take copies of any documents in their possession.
To give you some idea of the extent of pauperism which a journey of six days brought me in contact with, I will here state the number of in-door paupers I so far saw with my own eyes. I will then add the number of out-door paupers receiving relief from each union at the time of my visit, as given to me from the books of each union.
In-door paupers in the union of -
Being a total of.....................12,719 paupers under roof, to be daily fed, clothed and doctored.
Out-door paupers in the union of-
Being a total of 105201 paupers supposed to be destitute, and fed daily by the above union.
From the above tables it then appears that at this time, in only five of the unions of Galway and Mayo, there are 117,920 individuals dependent on the poor rate; of which number 12,719 are actually under the poor law roof. To give you a still further insight into what an Irish union has to encounter, I will analyse the condition of the 40,000 paupers receiving out-door relief at Ballinarobe:-
As heads of families.......11,000 706 were included
Dependent upon them....29,000 231
Of the above 3,000 987 were impotent cases;
Having dependent on them 9,000 308
There were ablebodied 7,000 721
Dependent upon them 19,000 923
From the general appearance of the population, from the actual circumstances at this moment of those districts, I am satisfied the above numbers will yet fearfully increase, and that still, then, as now, the traveller's eye will have almost every mile to be shocked with the sight of vast numbers of the peasantry, with famine unmistakable marked on their brows. With regard to the workhouse generally, I can say of them, as I said of Ballinasloe, their cleanliness and order under all circumstances are most praiseworthy.
* * * * * * * * * * *
The new fever wards or hospitals at Ballinasloe, at Ballinrobe, and at Castlebar ,are constructed on plans in praise of which too much cannot be said; at Ballina, one of the same nature is also in progress, everything which can tend to secure good drainage and ventilation has been studied, and I think most successfully in these buildings.
At Castlebar I was much struck with the extreme attention given by the medical officer to providing the sick and convalescent with everything which could tend to their comfort, and this not by putting the union to any extra expense, but simply by inducing them to allow the ablebodied paupers to occupy their time in laying out and keeping exercising grounds, &c., with some taste, and some aim at a cheerful, ornamental character instead of idling over the work of languidly cracking stones, never likely to be put to any profitable account.
At Ballina, a union in which I was told should fine the greatest amount of misery, I was delighted at the appearance of the paupers throughout all the establishments, with the exception alone of some fever sheds, in which the heat was almost insupportable-in my opinion, the ventilation imperfect and certainly the details less cleanly than they should be; but it is fair to say that these sheds are not under the vice-guardians immediate jurisdiction and are merely temporary affairs. The physical appearance of the children- there were 1,018 boys, 905 girls- was far better than that of any I have seen; I attribute this in some degree to the healthy situation of the house, again to the excellent sanitary regulations which pervade it; no amount of water is spared on person or thing; again, the medical officer, in my opinion, most wisely argues, that it is wise, as well as in the end economical, to aim by improved diet to preserve health in the halls, rather than to wait till the children fall from the halls on the sick list; his plan seems to be judiciously to attack debility while it is debility, instead of waiting till it has become disease.
Very great attempts are making in most of the union houses to turn the in-door labour to some account. At Tuam they are introducing a great many youths as shoemakers. the active vice-guardian, Mr. Bell, has set every hand he can to some work or another-the lace pillow, the spinning wheel, cutting out and making articles of linen for the use of the house; wherever he can invent or promote work, in contradistinction to the stone-breaking farce, he has done it. At Ballina they showed me sheeting and bedding to a large amount which they had on the premises. I was glad to see in several of these unions the pains taken in the education of the children; the schools at Tuam and at Ballina, at the latter especially, would have done no discredit to the best of our English establishments.
In England, Sir, you have little idea of what the difficulties are, which beset the administration of the Poor Law in this famine-stricken land; the small rate-payers are but one short stage removed from actual pauperism. A large proportion of landowners are utterly ruined, many of them at hide and seek with bailiffs; the trade of the town is as nil.- while the rates, let them be as small as they may be, have to be met out of no profits; at least, three of the above unions are utterly, and in my opinion, irretrievably bankrupt. At Castlebar bailiffs are now in possession of all the houses. The day I was there, although certainly in one of the auxiliary houses noting could be more wanting than a supply of the most necessary articles of male costume, it came to my knowledge, that the authorities actually could not allow a bold contractor, ready to supply clothing, to bring the material to the house, lest it should be seized. At Ballina, the advances received from Government stand at £49,085 7s.3d., the net demand against the division to September, 1849, £42,964 4s. 1 1/2. I was shown letters from the various officers, vainly petitioning for the payment of their arrears of salary; also from small tradesmen, I suspect little superior in circumstance now to paupers. The whole of the machinery of the union would have come to a dead lock a short time since, had not the vice-guardians made themselves personally liable to the contractors for necessary supplies; in point of fact, these not overpaid officers stand at this moment in the position of men who have gallantly risked their own ruin to save the union from a state of things, the cost of which in human life and civil disturbance would have been most awful. On the 31st of May the liabilities of this union were £21,885; the money in the hands of the treasurer was £22 10s 11d; in that of relieving officers £252 17s 8 1/2d.
I saw in no union such signs of resuscitation as I did in this; there was evidently an improvement in many places, as well in the size of occupations as in their cultivation; still, its present condition, without credit, without funds, at one of the most critical periods, is and must be to all concerned one of deep anxiety. A rat in total of £10,466 3s. 11d. is now in course of collection; of this £2,174 6s.5d in arrears; but such are the present circumstances of this unhappy country, that every fresh rate drags down fresh supplies of pauperism to join the present pressure for dependent support; it throws more land out of cultivation, more ablebodied out of employ; it drives out the few remaining small farmers who have any capital left with which to abscond or emigrate; it closes more shops, diminishes, in every conceivable way, all those processes of productive employment on the existence of which depends the very life of the community.
And now, Sir, let me say a word about the condition of the peasantry who are, as yet, without the walls. I cannot exaggerate it; I will not, I dare not, paint it in all the awful colours which diligent inquiry and ocular inspection have presented ready mixed, to my hand. Famine is the prevailing type in which life seems to be printed throughout the whole district I travelled.
I drove the same horse throughout, with the exception of a single stage; what hours were not given by actual workhouse inspection, or snatched for a very little sleep, I employed in a personal investigation of the condition of the peasantry wherever I could bring it within my reach. Sad, Sir, as is the physical aspect of those whom workhouse diet has as yet failed to rally from their hunger bred debility. It is as nothing compared with that of tens of thousands who as yet exist unaided by the law. The public are apt to imagine that starvation in its extremity assumes some form of violence that it drives men necessarily to all manner of unknown horrors; the crew of a shop rescued on a raft from drowning; but with no water or food, or seeming hope of any, are by the very suddenness of the change, from abundance to utter want, driven, it is too true, to a madness which makes them as beasts of prey-upon each other. Not so is it with the famine stricken creatures I have lately seen; hoping against hope; struggling against the pressure of hunger for months, knowing food may be obtained at the workhouse, but looking at the terms of its attainment as their last compromise with death, they have held on to their cabins and their little holdings till forced forth by eviction; or, their last resources having failed, and threatening fever, existing diarrhoea, having told them it must now be the union house or the union coffin, then, and not till then, will they close with the terms of the law, which then, alas! often comes too late to their aid; they are received into the probationary ward, quickly pass thence to the dysentery ward, thence their removal is one of which they know nothing-for they are dead.
Thousands are content to walk miles daily to break stones as a test for 1lb of meal, per diem. While I feel it my duty to say that I am convinced that where out-relief is given, it is not given in quantity or quality sufficient to support a life of health, I am bound to say that such is the condition of things here, such the wheel within wheel of besetting difficulty with which the question of out relief is connected that I am not as yet prepared to argue how far the attempt should be made to extend its limits or its nature.
It has been my habit from time to time to leave my car and center the cabins by the road side; it was enough to melt a heart of stone to see the people in them; in one instance, under the remains of the roof of a "tumbled down house," I found a mother and some small children; the latter, some of them quite naked, mere skeletons, but with that enlargement of the abdomen now so common amongst them. A thing of mere bone, of about three years old, lay on an old red pettycoat, looking as near death as I could have wished it. I gave the woman a loaf of bread; in one moment she had torn out a piece of it and place it in her mouth; I was about to point out to her to give some to the children, when with a look I shall never forget, she placed her finger in her mouth, drew out the moistened bread, and at once began to place it between the child's lips. She had placed the remains of the loaf by her side; one of the boys approached, to probably stare at the apparition; she roughly pushed him from her; and at once hid it under her, and never heeding me, even to thank me, she still tried to force the chewed food into that half-corpse's mouth. As I turned to leave the cottage she sprang on her knees, and her very blessings were terrible; the loaf had just cost me two pence. At another spot there was a wretched hovel, at the door of which a scarce clad girl was sitting; I rashly beckoned to her, and taking a loaf from the well of my car I threw it at her; in a moment a crowd of beings rushed from the cabin, and a struggle began for the prize, in which all feelings for sex and age were forgotten; it was only by no small force I secured the prize for the girl, it was with difficulty we could master the croup that had then surrounded us; we did what we could to give them at least one meal. The "prasha weed," or corn kail with nettles, is now so sought that serious damage is often done to the corn by the poor creatures who thus try to live.
I am still, Sir, of the opinion, I expressed in my last letter; though there may be cases in which these starving creatures will eat unclean, unusual animal food, these cases are comparatively very rare. I admit I have received, on evidence I cannot doubt, proof that foals, young asses, breeding sows, that have died unbutchered-sheep stolen, hidden, then eaten when decomposed &c. have in some instances stood between famine and its victims; but I cannot deny that I have in my experience known cases in my own country of equally cross appetite, induced by far less want.
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